AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, Volume 7, Number 1. February 2023 Pp.4-20
Proximity Principle in Legal Translation
Hasan S. Ghazala
Department of English, College of Social Sciences
Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: 10/16/2022 Accepted: 02/06/2023 Published: 02/24/2023
This research paper introduces to proximity principle as an approach to translation in general, and legal translation in particular, when the full meaning is not attainable in the Target Language(TL). The main problem of this study is how to translate legal texts more approximately than accurately due to several reasons highlighted below. The principal aim of the study it to probe the principle of proximity as a translation strategy compared to perfect equivalence. accordingly, the importance of the study lies in understanding the process of the translator’s strife for approximate meaning in the TL. So, the main question of the paper is how translators manage and struggle to translate unfindable legal terms closely into the TL. On the other hand, the methodology of the study is based mainly on theoretical definitions, logical arguments, analytical and practical discussion, translation procedures and strategies, and culminated by conclusions and findings. One main finding is to establish the principle of proximity in translating legal texts in specific as a major strategy in translation theory to sort out solutions to the problems of translating non-equivalent legal terms. Finally, the paper covers points like the scope of proximity principle, its applicability, the justifications for using it, volume of potential loss of meaning involved, its credibility, proximity vis-à-vis faithfulness and accuracy, etc. All these and other points are considered in relation to a huge number of applications in practice in legal context.
Keywords: proximity principle, translation, legal terms, strategy, procedure, approximate translation
Cite as: Ghazala, H. S. (2023). Proximity Principle in Legal Translation. Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary
Studies 7 (1). 4-20.
Al-Farouqi, H.S. (2001) (4th revised edn.). Farouqi’s Law Dictionary: English-Arabic). Beirut: Librairies du Liban Publishers.
Al-Farouqi, H.S. (1997) (3th impression). Farouqi’s Law Dictionary: Arabic-English . Beirut: Librairies du Liban Publishers.
Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London and New York: Routledge.
Bassnett-McGuire, S. (1980). Translation Studies (Revised edn, 1991), London: Routledge.
Cao, D. (2007). Translating Law. Multilingual Matters Ltd. Clevedon, Buffalo and Toronto.
Cao, D. (2010). Handbook of Translation Studies. John Benjamins. Int J Semiot Law. 29:473–493.
Carter, R. (1987). Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives. London: Allen & Unwin.
Cruse, D.A. (1986). Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, D.(1980b). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. London: Deutsch.
El-Farhaty H. (2015). Arabic-English-Arabic Legal Translation. Routledge.
El-Farhaty H. (2016). Translating Lexical Legal Terms Between English and Arabic. Int J Semiot Law. 29:473–493.
Ghazala, H. (2012a). Translating the Media and Political Idiom: A Textbook for University Students. Konooz AlMarifa. Jeddah: Saudi Arabia.
Ghazala, H. (2014). Translating Islamic Texts: A Textbook, Jedda, Saudi Arabia: Konooz Al-Marifa.
Ghazala, H. (2015). Translating Culture: A Textbook, Jedda, Saudi Arabia: Konooz Al-Marifa.
Ghazala, H. (2017). A Textbook of Translation as Problems and Solutions (Arabic-English): A Contrastive Linguistic Approach. Jedda, Saudi Arabia: Konooz Al-Marifa.
Ghazala, H. (2020). The First Arabic Encyclopaedia of Translation(الموسوعة العربية الأولى للترجمة) (in Arabic), Jedda, Saudi Arabia: Konooz Al-Marifa.
Ghazala, H. (2021). A Textbook of Legal Translation: Problems and Solutions. Jedda, Saudi Arabia: Konooz Al-Marifa.
Hatim B. and Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the Translator. London and New York: Longman.
Hatim, B. & Mason, I. (1997). The Translator as Communicator. London and New York: Routledge.
Leech, G. (1974/1981). Semantics. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Lyons, J.(1977). Semantics (2.vols). (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
Newmark, P. (1988). A Textbook of Translation. London :Prentice Hall.
Raffel, B. (1988). The Art of Translating Poetry. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Robinson, D. (1997/2007). Becoming a Translator. London and New York: Routledge.
Rojo, A. (2009). Step by Step: A Course in Contrastive Linguistics and Translation. Peter Lang.
Saeed, J. (2003). Semantics (2nd edn). Blackwell Publishing.
Snell-Hornby, M. (1988). Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Wales, K. (1989/2001). A Dictionary, of Stylistics. Longman.
Webster’s (1996). Webster’s Encyclopaedic Unabridged Dictionary. New York: Gramercy.