AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, Volume3, Number3. August 2019                                    Pp.20-36

Mahmoud Darwish and Joy Harjo: Cosmic Consciousness

Department of English, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Amman Arab University. Amman, Jordan


Abstract PDF

This study examines the phases of human consciousness revealed in the poetry of indigenous people in the light of some prominent psychologists and philosophers mainly Bucke, Schleiermacher, William James, Hegel, and Moores. Bucke and Schleiermacher cited three forms of consciousness: Animal or Brutish Self-awareness, Sensual or Self-Consciousness, and Cosmic Consciousness. While examining the poetry of indigenous people, Palestinians and Native Americans, we find out that the majority moves within the confines of the Sensual or Self-Consciousness in their reaction to the brutish consciousness of the oppressors who deny their unalienable rights for life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. Unlike others, Mahmoud Darwish, the Palestinian, and Joy Harjo, the Native American, attempt to transcend the sensual consciousness and adopt a broader universal vision or cosmic consciousness; however, their peaceful vision is often shattered by bitter realities and frustrated by the inhuman conduct of their oppressors. In their verses, the particular or the sensual is not completely overlooked or concealed. It is always there, yet alleviated by a universal vision held by the two poets

Cite as:

Jamil, A. M. (2019). Mahmoud Darwish and Joy Harjo: Cosmic Consciousness.  Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies, 3 (3) 20-36.


Dr. Adil M. Jamil, specialized in American Poetry with a Master’s degree from Marshall
University, USA, and a Doctoral Degree from MTSU, USA., is now a chairman of the
Department of English at Amman Arab University, having growing interest in the life and Arts
of Indigenous people, beside Creative Writing. ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5916-