AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, Volume3, Number3. August 2019 Pp.20-36
Mahmoud Darwish and Joy Harjo: Cosmic Consciousness
Adil M. Jamil
Department of English, Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Amman Arab University. Amman, Jordan
This study examines the phases of human consciousness revealed in the poetry of indigenous people in the light of some prominent psychologists and philosophers mainly Bucke, Schleiermacher, William James, Hegel, and Moores. Bucke and Schleiermacher cited three forms of consciousness: Animal or Brutish Self-awareness, Sensual or Self-Consciousness, and Cosmic Consciousness. While examining the poetry of indigenous people, Palestinians and Native Americans, we find out that the majority moves within the confines of the Sensual or Self-Consciousness in their reaction to the brutish consciousness of the oppressors who deny their unalienable rights for life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. Unlike others, Mahmoud Darwish, the Palestinian, and Joy Harjo, the Native American, attempt to transcend the sensual consciousness and adopt a broader universal vision or cosmic consciousness; however, their peaceful vision is often shattered by bitter realities and frustrated by the inhuman conduct of their oppressors. In their verses, the particular or the sensual is not completely overlooked or concealed. It is always there, yet alleviated by a universal vision held by the two poets
Keywords: Animal or Brutish Consciousness, Cosmic consciousness, Darwish, Harjo, Native Americans, Palestinians, Sensual or Self-Consciousness
Cites as: Jamil, A. M. (2019). Mahmoud Darwish and Joy Harjo: Cosmic Consciousness. Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies, 3 (3) 20-36.