AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, Volume 7, Number 1. February  2023                           Pp. 243-260

Heteroglossia in Choukri’s Al-Khubz al- Hafi: A Reflection on Moroccan Plurilingualism

Languages, Arts and Human Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Languages, Arts and Human
Sciences, Hassan First University, Settat, Morocco

Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco


Language is not only a means of communication but also a symbol of identity.The languages people master and use determine not only their ethnic group, geographical region, and level of education but also their socioeconomic status and the identity that they claim.Like in the plurilingual[i] Society many languages are in contact in Morocco, and people have to code-switch and, or code-mix vernacular, official, and foreign languages.This article aims to investigate the use of languages, namely Darija, Amazigh[ii], Spanish and Modern Standard Arabic in Mohamed Choukri’s (1982) autobiography, Al-Khubz al-Ḥāfī within Bakhtin’s (1981) model, known as Heteroglossia, which views language as a sociocultural phenomenon.The paper also uses Habemas’ (1991) concept of “public space” to determine the domains of the use of languages.The significance of this study lies in its exploration of language use through the analysis of a literary text.Many sciences fields like linguistics, literature, sociolinguistics , and sociology are in contact in this study.The main question of this study is: How is pluriligualism represented in Choukri’s Al-Khubz al-Ḥāfī?.The linguistic analysis of the novel reveals the plurilingual profile of the author and Morocco and the ways all the existing languages interact.

Cite as:

EL KHATIBI, M. , &  EL ALLAME , Y. E. (2023).  Heteroglossia in Choukri’s Al-Khubz al- Hafi: A Reflection on Moroccan Plurilingualism.
Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies 7 (1): 243-260.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24093/awejtls/vol7no1.19


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Mourad EL KHATIBI got his Ph.D. in political discourse and translation.He is currently an assistant professor at the Faculty of Languages, Arts and Human Sciences, Hassan First University in Settat, Morocco.He teaches English Studies and translation.Member of the Moroccan Writers’ Union. Member of the Languages, Arts , and Human Sciences laboratory.Participated in many international conferences in Morocco, Qatar, England and Tunisia.His areas of interest are translation, literary criticism ,and cultural studies.He has published more than eight books on literary translation and literary criticism and many articles in International journals.Translated two collections of Haiku poetry from Arabic into English.
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7667-1172

 Yamina EL KIRAT EL ALLAME got her Doctorat d’Etat in minority identities, languages and cultures. She is the Director of the Moroccan Institute for Advanced Studies (IMEA).She is also the coordinator of the UNIMED Sub-Network on Migration. She was a member of the UNESCO Ad Hoc Committee of Experts for Endangered Languages. She is an international adviser and consultant in the field of higher education. She was a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at Greenville Tech in 2010 with the program entitled “Direct Access to the Muslim World” , where she helped in developing a program entitled “Middle Eastern Studies”.Professor EL KIRAT is a member of the Standing Committee of the World Congress of African Linguistics (WOCAL) and the President of the Organizing Committee of WOCAL 9. Her interest in all these issues stems from her personal experience and interest in the linguistic, cultural, social, educational , and political issues in North Africa in general and the Moroccan context in particular. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2511-2741