AWEJ for Translation & Literary Studies, Volume 5, Number 1. February 2021 Pp. 234 -247
The paper reevaluates Wajahat Ali’s play The Domestic Crusaders through the postcolonial views of Edward Said. It explores the role of the Western media in the classification and alienation of Muslims according to racist misconceptions. Despite the differences in their respective approaches, the two texts—Ali’s The Domestic Crusaders and Said’s Covering Islam—denounce the media’s role in the distortion of the portrayals of Islam and Muslims. Accordingly, the study aims at discussing the two texts through a postcolonial viewpoint in relation to the media’s role in the spread of Islamophobia. Extracts from both texts will be provided to explicitly or implicitly epitomize the dilemma of the Muslim society after 9/11. The paper explores how the media exploit the fear, ignorance, or vulnerabilities of the global audience. The paper proves that the crusades against Islam deliberately and erroneously describe it as a source of violence and primitiveness that threatens humankind.
Samman, M. M. (2021). A Postcolonial Scrutiny of the Media Imperialism in Wajahat Ali’s The Domestic Crusaders. Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies 5 (1) 234 -247.
Abrahamian, E. (2003). The US media, Hunting, and September 11. Third World Quarterly, 24(3). pp. 529–544. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143659032000084456
Ali, W. (2016). The Domestic Crusaders. San Francisco: McSweeney’s Books.
Allport, G. (1955). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co
Barber, B. (1995). Jihad vs McWorld. New York: Routledge
Boyd-Barrett, O. & Tanner M. (2020). Media Imperialism: Continuity and Change. London: The Rowman &Littlefield Publishing Group.
El-Sharif, O. (August 20, 2001). Media Imperialism in the Global Era. Middle East News Online. ProQuest Central. Available at https://search.proquest.com/docview/203075150
Gigerenzer, T. (December 16, 2010) Muslim American Artists Strive to Bridge a Chasm. New York Times, 29. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/17/us/17bcarts.html
Gottschalk, P., & Greenberg, G. (2008). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman &Littlefield Publishers, INC.
Fourie, P. (2001). Media Studies: Institutions, Theories, and Issues. South Africa: Juta Education.
Franklin, C. (2017). Narrative Humanity at the Intersection of 9/11 and Katrina: Dave Eggers’s Zeitoun. American Quarterly, 69 (4). pp. 857–881. Available at https://10.1353/aq.2017.0070
Johnson, J. D., & Lecci, L. (2003). Assessing Anti-White Attitudes and Predicting Perceived Racism: The Johnson-Lecci Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(3), 299–312. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202250041
Kurzman, C. (2012). Muslim-American Terrorism since 9/11. Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security. Durham, North Carolina University Press. Available at http://kurzman.unc.edu/files/2011/06/Kurzman_Muslim-American_Terrorism_Since_911_An_Accounting.pdf
Lopez, F. (2011). Toward a Definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the Early Twentieth Century. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 34 (4). pp. 556–573. Available at https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2010.528440
Morton, S., & Boehmer, E. (2010). Terror and the Postcolonial. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Meek, A. (2010). Trauma and Media: Theories, Histories, and Images. New York: Routledge
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Phobia. Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/phobia
Newsweek (2018). The Domestic Crusaders’ Shows Muslim-American Struggle after September 11. (Nov 12, 2018). Newsweek. Available at https://www.newsweek.com/domestic-crusaders-shows-muslim-american-struggle-after-september-11-220760
Rane, H., Ewart, J., & Martinkus, J. (2014). Media-Generated Muslims and Islamophobia. Media Framing of the Muslim World, 29-46. London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137334831_3
Runnymede Trust Report. (1997). Islamophobia: A Challenge for us all. London: Author
Said, E. W. (1997). Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Random House.
Taylor, C., & Gutmann, A. (1994). Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Maram Mohammed Samman is an Assistant Professor of English Literature at Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. She is the Deputy Head of the Languages and Translation Department. She earned her PhD in English Literature from King Saud University in Riyadh. Her current research interests focus mainly on drama and cross‑cultural comparisons of postmodern cultural and literary movements. ORCiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2515-6987